Reminiscing those days in December 71
By July 1971, India the neighbour was saddled with six and a half million refugees fleeing from this pogrom. Over five million of them were in the Indian State of West Bengal. It contained over 400 out of nearly 600 camps in India.
Air Commodore Prashant Dikshit (Retd)
An alumni of the National Defence College in New Delhi with
an MA in Defence Science from Allahabad University, India. Mr. Dikshit is a
life member of the United Services Institution, New Delhi, an armed-forces
think tank and he is also a member of the Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses in New Delhi, India.
As I write these lines, I anticipate the thrill of standing
on the soil of Bangla-desh whilst it celebrates its liberation and
victory day in its capital Dhaka on 16th December 2023. In a small manner,
I was also a part of India’s national endeavours for liberating Bangladesh
from the cruel Pakistani regime.
On the night of 25th March 1971,
The Pakistan Army launched a relentless crackdown on citizens of East
Pakistan, their own country. Thousands of people were shot, bombed and burned
to death in Dacca alone. That is Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh now.
By July 1971, India the neighbour was saddled with six and a
half million refugees fleeing from this pogrom. Over five million of them were
in the Indian State of West Bengal. It contained over 400 out of nearly 600
camps in India. In the dark annals of human cruelty, the killings in East
Pakistan perhaps rated bloodier than Bosnia and in the same accounts in the
same gruesome league as Rwanda.
India could not ignore this slaughter any more. For
purely humanitarian reasons it had to intervene. India was facing a
trauma in its extreme. It was necessary to rescue itself from the clutches of a
severe emotional and economic burden engulfing its people. A military campaign
was the only plausible solution for this excruciating human problem, facing the
Recorded history reveals that India’s Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi had then held a meeting with the Army Chief General Sam Manekshaw (Later
Field Marshal) and then military planners drew their plans.
We now know of the emergence of “Mukti Bahini”, the
India-supported freedom fighters of Bangladesh perhaps in April 1971 a prelude
to the military action to follow on 4th December 1971. But not before
Pakistan launched preemptive aerial strikes on Indian bases in west India on
3rd December 1971 and Pakistan declared war on India. A war which lasted
till 16th December 1971 when about 93000 troops of the Pakistan Army laid
down their arms and surrendered to Indian Forces. Bangladesh thus came into
The 1971 war had arrived at my door with a challenge. I was
a young Flight Lieutenant in the Indian Air Force and a member of 106 Squadron
of the service. We were specialists trained to fly the Canberra Reconnaissance
Aircraft meant to take pictures of strategic targets of the adversary. And we
were busy in that role from April onwards, it is believed.
On 4th December 1971, we were relaxing in the officers’
mess when in the late evening we were asked to come to the Squadron. We all
assembled in the office of the Flight Commander Squadron Leader Charanjit
Singh. When our Commanding Officer Wing Commander Ramesh Benegal broke the news
that the Bomber Force was looking for one set of crews for a bombing mission to
Sargodha, an important Pakistan Air Force base in West Pakistan. And he wanted
volunteers. All of us, including I, had raised our right hand although it had
been more than three years, let alone flying the bomber, I had not even taken a
peek inside the bomber. In routine circumstances, it would have been through a
period of weeks of refresher orientation but here only 20 minutes before the
mission launch were available.
Benegal had promptly nominated Flight Lieutenant
Mohinder Sandhu as the pilot and I as the navigator. We were to drop 8,000
pounds of bombs over the Sargodha air base in West Pakistan in a midnight raid,
which we did accurately and precisely. But a very serious emergency erupted
after that as the bomber doors would not close. Over enemy territory, it placed
severe limits on the speed of the aircraft whilst pushing fuel consumption to
very dangerous limits. For nearly 15 minutes we struggled and, in the
course of which, we had to descend into the barrage of anti-aircraft fire. The
other choice was to remain high and get shot down by fighters. We climbed
eventually the friendly territory to nearly 45,000 feet to save fuel and get
benefits from westerly winds. But we lost one engine on the landing run due to
The Squadron’s focus however remained on East Pakistan.
Several missions were undertaken. Let me narrate a few. For our photo
mission on December 8, when we reached the launching airfield in Guwahati,
there was hardly any time to refuel. It was critical to reach our first target
at Cox’s Bazaar at two pm to coincide with the actions of the Indian Navy.
Therefore, we had to fly at the topmost speed which the aircraft could safely
withstand to maintain time. The aircraft guzzles fuel in those flying
conditions. We were to enter East Pakistan at Aizawl, Mizoram, India from the
east to align with our photo run. As we were pulling up for the run, there was
potent anti-aircraft fire. We then dived again to the ground quite unmindful of
the ground fire and proceeded to Chittagong harbor and airfield where a similar
photo run had to be executed. Short of the airfield, we climbed through thick
smoke billowing from Fuel Storage tanks which were perhaps struck earlier by
Group Captain Shamshul Alam in a single-engine Otter Aircraft. He pioneered the
creation of the Bangladesh Air Force with the support of the Indian Air Force.
Within minutes of fuel left, we had landed.
Similarly, the photo mission on December 13, 1971, was truly
adventurous. A fire in the battery compartment had to be rectified. Got
airborne just to be in time to avail of adequate sunlight whilst we
photographed the Dhaka complex. There was great pressure and we were
required to proceed directly to Delhi. It was already twilight in Dhaka and
full darkness as we closed into Delhi. But, most seriously, our actual speed
reduced to 1/3rd compared to what it was during the onward journey to
Dacca. It was one of the most noteworthy experiences of westerly
headwinds, which are known to have recorded speeds of over 300 km/hour in this
terrain-induced wind funnel south of the Himalayas. As a result, we arrived at
Palam well beyond the planned flight plan and were declared a hostile aircraft
in our own country. But we survived to tell this story. I now learn that these
pictures were most useful for the attack on Dhaka which led to the surrender of
Benegal received the Mahavir Chakra and Charanjit a Vir
Chakra for gallantry. Shamshul Alam was bestowed with Bir Uttam by the
Bangladesh Government. We cherish their memories.
The author is an IAF Veteran and was awarded the Vayu Sena
Medal for gallantry during the 1971 War.