Drone- a Game Changing Technology in the Field with Challenges - Global and Bangladesh Perspectives
Brigadier General Syed Md Rafiqul Islam
A drone, in technological terms, is an unmanned aircraft which otherwise a flying robot or small aircraft that can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously through software-controlled flight plans in their embedded systems, working in conjunction with on board sensors and GPS.1 The Drone is also called UAV (unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The arrangement of UAV/ drone and the person who controls the flight on the ground and the mechanism (system) those connect together is called UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). Drones/ UAVs are used by the military for combat operation and by law enforcing agencies for maintaining internal security. Further, drones are being used for any battlefield operation: surveillance, reconnaissance, precision attacks, targeted killings, etc. As any other robot, a drone can be used to carry out dull, dirty or dangerous battlefield operations, referred to as the “Three Ds”.2 Drones/ UAVs are also used against terrorist groups in these days. They are highly effective against terrorist groups operating in inaccessible areas with minimum civilian casualties. On the other hand, terrorist groups, criminals may also have the chances to use drones for their own terrorist and criminal activities. Other than military and security forces uses, drones are widely being used in agricultural, environmental and commercial sectors as well as for private needs. Many individual, groups and educational institutions are involved in developing small drones in the country. The versatile uses of drones at times resulted in the disruption of internal security in many countries around the world. Therefore, restrictions on drone flying and gradual improvement of anti-drone technology are essential.
In Bangladesh, the Army uses small drone for training and reconnaissance purpose only, the Navy produces indigenously built drone for targeting practices3, and the Air Force has a plan to purchase a medium altitude long endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial Vehicle (UAV), as part of their Forces Goal 20304. Bangladesh forces deployed in UN peacekeeping operations, they also use small drones for reconnaissance purpose. In private and commercial sectors, few non-military patterns of drones are being used. However, drones are gaining popularity in Bangladesh day by day and posing huge opportunities to exploit. Bangladesh has its own drone flying policy following international standards. The Civil Aviation Authority of Bangladesh (CAAB) is the controlling authority in this regard.
A Brief History of Drones
In 1849, Austrians soldiers attacked Venice with hot-air, hydrogen or helium-filled balloons equipped with bombs. Many historians considered this, a trace of drone. In 1918, the US army experimentally produced unmanned aircraft called Kettering Bug, which was never used in combat. In fact, drone first appeared in 1935 with a full retooling, called Havilland DH82B “Queen Bee” biplane. This aircraft was completely remote-controlled and was the first complete drone. The name of the drone was derived from male bee, which is characterized by a buzzing sound that is extremely deep and sometimes annoying. In modern times, drones are preferred to call UAV. During WW-II those UAVs were used as reconnaissance aircraft. In the 1970s, when countries around the world began to develop modern drones, only Israeli Air Force was successful in developing several new versions of drones, and few countries including the USA integrated those drones into their drone-fleets. Actually, the era of modern drones/UAVs has begun in the midst of the Vietnam War in 1973. Drones were also used during the Persian Gulf War and Kosovo Conflict for both surveillance and weapon delivery. However, sharply increased of Drones’ used by the US Army, started after 9/11 terrorists attacks. Drones have been employed in Afghanistan, Mali, Pakistan, Somalia, Yemen and along the US-Mexico border.5
Drones/ UAVs used in the military are usually categorized based on their weight, range, speed as well as their capabilities. Drones/UAVs may be fixed with guns, can carry explosives and launch missiles.
Picture 1: Early age of Drones
wiki/Kettering Bug, 02_ De Havilland Queen Bee _ Imperial War Museum
Different models of drones/UAVs are used in the military are divided into three categories: Class-I category drones is smaller in size, weighing less than 150 kg. Class-I drones, are equipped with Computerized Command, Control, Communication & Information solutions to provide Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR) report/data. Fulmar is one of the examples of Class-I small/mini drone. Class-I drone range is up to 50 km and altitude up to 10,000 feet. Micro and Nano-drones are insect-sized spy machines; they have also been hovering over real battlefields for several years. The most obvious example of such drone is 1-inch-by-4-inch Black Hornet.6
Picture 2: Class I Drone
Source: Nuevos contratos de Thales para ofrecer al mercado español el Fulmar X,
https:// www.pinterest.com/pin/447615650459359219/, Nano Spy Drone Mosquito Drone from U S Military.
Class-II category drone is tactical drone/UAV, weighing between 150-600 kg. They are specially designed to be used in the organic battalion level or in Special Forces as assets for the purposes of medium range surveillance. They have a vital role of filling the gap between the ranges of the functions of short-range micro-UAVs and strategic UAVs. Class-II drone range is less than 200 km and altitude around 18,000 feet. They are being used in situation analysis and awareness, protection and surveillance, target acquisition and assessment of damages. The most sophisticated tactical ISTAR system in the entire globe right now is ‘Watch keeper’ which is developed by Thales Company.
Picture 3: Class-II (Tactical) Drones
Source: China and the Globalization of Armed Drone Strikes, Watch keeper
on display at the Farnborough Air Show in July 2004.
Class-III category drones/UAVs is strategic drone, weighing over 600 kgs and more effective than class-II drone/UAV. Class-III drone/ UAV is usually referred to as Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) system referred to as Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) system as well as High Altitude Long (HALE) UAV. Class-III drone range of MALE is over 200 km and altitude is up to 30,000 feet and HALE range is indefinite and the altitude is over 30,000 feet. The MALE is especially ideal for surveillance and reconnaissance in a non-threatening area. They have a wide range of applications, being used to locate the position of the enemy or the movement of certain population who are not involved in a conflict. Tactical drones and strategic drones can be divided into six subcategories: close range, short range, medium range, long range, endurance, and medium altitude long endurance (MALE) drones.7 Some renowned MALE includes Reaper/Predator. Drones are significantly cheaper to purchase than the manned aircraft.
Picture 4: Class III Drone (Strategic Drones)
Source: Global Hawk • Autonomous Systems • UAS (Unmanned Air System) May 05, 2015, US Air Force MQ-9 Reaper Hunter-Killer Drone being Made Deadlier.
There are many non-military patterns of drone; those are small in nature and having number of cameras and other required accessories fixed in without weaponry system. The potential of drones in non-military applications is large. Those drones are being used in different sectors for various purposes. They are being used for farming and agriculture, spray fertilizer, service delivery, guarding key installation, maritime support, mining survey, construction and urban planning, telecommunications and internet access, live entertainment, cinematography, advertisement and news coverage, security of wildlife, environmental protection, waste management and weather forecasting, emergency, humanitarian and medical support and recreational purpose etc.
Opportunities of Drones
The requirements of the drone are immense in the current and future world. They are relatively cheaper and unbound by human limitations. They can remain airborne for long durations, do not require life-support systems, and will never say no to a mission. In many ways, drones present the same moral issues as any other action-at-a-distance weapon: they allow warriors to kill at a minimal risk to themselves, thus lowering the human cost of aggression.8 It also plays diversified roles in various fields for maintaining internal security and aiding to the fastest growing economy of a country like, Bangladesh. Few opportunities/ advantages of drones are discussed below:
a. Defense/ Combat Operation. Many of the military drones/UAVs are being designed exclusively for surveillance and others for offensive operations.
Drone has become battle winning factors and integral part of today’s military weaponry system. It has the time-sensitive targeting and targeted-strike capabilities which can cause serious casualties over enemy positions, base, installations, naval ships, airborne and paratroopers, helicopters, aircrafts especially while landing and taking off. The most advantage of military drone is in reduced engagement of military personnel in danger or life risks in combat. Drones are as lethal to enemy combats as regular airplanes. It can easily neutralize the enemy power with minimal casualties. Drones are smaller in size and can fly lower than traditional airplanes, which reduce risk of loss of military equipment/ armaments. This ensures that the expensive military hardware is only deployed when it is very much necessary. Drones/ UAVs have more accuracy to pinpoint a target from a greater distance that reduces collateral damage to the civilians and infrastructure. Drones are used in combat for surveillance, reconnaissance, and gather general military intelligence. It is difficult for the enemy to identify drone and notice a drone operation due to their stealth nature. Drones are significantly easier and faster to deploy in any operation than other alternatives. Military drones are always ready to be deployed which saves time to engage and neutralize an enemy target. More so, unmanned aircraft can fly to remote areas where troops are unable or unwilling to go. They can share data immediately with troops on the ground for necessary action.
b. Security Support. Drones/UAVs are utilized to guard the military bases and its important installations. Security personnel use drones to detect gaps and vulnerabilities of a particular area, that’s usually not seen with open eyes. Once those gaps and vulnerabilities are detected, the security personnel take necessary safety measures. They can follow or attack suspected criminals/insurgents. For regular inspection over the key installations, power plants, major bridges, high-rise buildings from the ground, drones can be of best utilization. VIP protection team operating in a remote location can potentially utilize a drone to do a forward observation over routes and identify potential threats. It can support making live video coverage on certain programs, where VIPs are present. The drones are utilized to check machineries, infrastructure, ongoing projects or valuable assets in the remote areas and monitor the duties and activities of personnel working there. Drones have the capacity to examine images and use audio-video sensors to sense gunfire, explosions, and thus help security personnel to take appropriate safety measures immediately. Drones are utilized to collect information from the place of accident, on casualty accounts and in assessment of damages. To map up the scene of crime and get early information before being physically present, engagement of the drone is a useful option. The drone can support fire fighters by providing first-hand information about fire and casualties, before they reach the spot and during operations. It can be assembled and equipped with water/chemical powder to spray against three dimensional fires to neutralize it. Drones may use for Surveillance for customs and excise duties and illegal imports, security and incident surveillance, monitoring and control of road traffic, mobile phone conversations. Bangladesh has a number of international and domestic Airports, Seaports, Naval bases and Air Strips; drone can be best used for guarding and monitoring those places. Riverine Bangladesh has numerous number of bridges, those interconnected cities with capital. Bangabandhu multipurpose bridge, ongoing Padma multipurpose bridge, along with other major bridges can be guarded by drones/UAVs. It can watch bordering areas and security posts.
The total, bordering areas of a country like Bangladesh is difficult to guard by the border security forces due to less no of security personnel and Border outposts (BOP). Drones can help monitoring perimeters of a particular area or in the bordering areas, covering the gaps in between BOPs, and can act as a watch dog to monitor cross border activities, arms, cattle, drugs and other goods smuggling. Drones can be utilized to observe security forces’ camps, established in deep forest. It can provide early information about criminals movement during patrolling in Chattogram hilly areas and upon locating miscreants/insurgents’ positions, can help in taking quick actions. Drones can provide information about illegal occupants on the river banks and quick information about Inland traffic accidents. It can measure river navigability for the smooth sailing of ferries/cargos/steamers in the river route. The drone can monitor illegal fishing in the river when government imposes restriction on fishing. Drone might be engaged in monitoring students’ activities/processions in the University/college campuses and Madrasa premises. It can collect information when garments or industrials’ workers are involved in agitation or on strike. It may act as watchdog to see the activities of Rohingya Refugees and their unauthorized movements.
c. Support to UN Peacekeeping Operation. Drones/UAVs play vital role in the UN peacekeeping missions nowadays. Peacekeepers use unarmed drone/UAVs mostly for reconnaissance and surveillance purposes. Drones/UAVs help missions acquire better information and improve the situational awareness of its troops, police, and civilian components operating in dangerous terrain. Drone helps to protect civilians and improve access to vulnerable populations in high-risk areas. The drones are equipped with photographic equipment and infrared technology that can detect troops hidden in the forest or operating at night, allowing them to track the movements of armed groups/ militias, assist patrols and convoys heading into hostile territory. It can closely monitor the movement of the opposition forces and enhance the protection of refugees, IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons), and humanitarian aid workers accordingly. Monitor smuggled illicit goods including minerals and arms shipments to rebel groups to and from neighboring countries. Bangladesh being one of the largest troops contributing countries in the UN mission, at times seeks for drones’ support and uses non-military small drones for reconnaissance and surveillance when necessary.
d. Emergency, Humanitarian and Medical Support. In an emergency situation, or any natural disasters, drones can quickly respond to assess damages, search for missing persons, locate victims, mitigate effects and deliver aid. The drone can provide medical support where advance medicine has huge impact on preventing disease, increasing life expectancy, or for certain circumstances like corona pandemic, when a call for quick access to drugs, blood, and medical equipment are required.
e. Environmental Protection, Waste Management and Weather Forecasting. The regulations are there to protect the environment, and minimize risk of environmental damage at any cost. With the use of drones, regular inspection work can be carried out remotely and safely watch and monitor any act that is detrimental to the environment. Nowadays, global waste management is also essential through recycling and bio-degradation. The process started much before in the developed countries and through this process waste management has improved dramatically. In this regard, drones operate at the forefront of these initiatives and help to clean oceans, rivers by providing updated data regularly through constant monitoring. Drones also offer a versatile solution that can physically follow weather patterns as they develop. This helps to take necessary preparation well in advance. Since Bangladesh is a country of natural calamities; drone can be of best uses here for weather forecasting and collection of related information.
f. Security of Wildlife. Climate change has a dramatic impact on the health of wildlife worldwide. Drones are used to monitor wildlife in changing climate and track their movements. Surveillance drone can collect information about pouching and helps identifying hunters and smugglers. It also helps tagging animals and collect samples to track diseases. The world largest mangrove forest Sundarban, always protects Bangladesh by facing devastating cyclones every year, which reduces loss of human life and wealth. The drone may be engaged to assess the losses of wildlife and forest damage after each natural calamity. It may be utilized to identify criminals, who are involved in illegal activities, smuggling, and pouching costly and rare species.
g. Agricultural Support. Drones generally help gaining maximum efficiency in agriculture. It can collect information on harvesting and agricultural needs. Agricultural workers are able to collect data, automate redundant process, and spray fertilizer, pesticide, other organic chemical, and herd monitoring and driving. Bangladesh being the agricultural based country, drone support is essential for its growth and development in this sector.
h. Maritime Support. Navigating oceans and ports require an immense amount of expertise and labor. But with increasing amounts of ocean data and innovations in autonomy, UAVs could become the standard for maritime shipping.9 Bangladesh is having large maritime boundary, coastal areas and large exclusive economic zone; drones/UAVs will be effective to ensure maritime security by coastline and sea-lane monitoring, Search and rescue, collecting information and data over the boundary.
j. Mining Survey, Construction and Urban Planning. Drones are capable of capturing volumetric data on stockpiles and survey, mining operations from the air. Many of the countries uses drone for mining survey. This reduces the risks of surveyors working on the ground. In construction work and urban planning and for its management, uses of drones and its collected data have become increasingly important. The planners have a better understanding about environments and know how to implement data. For many enterprises, use of drones is a big cost savings. To monitor a power center or operational center, huge manpower is needed for its safety and security, but drone application minimizes the manpower requirement and save money in almost every industry.
k. Airlines and Air Travels Inspection. Basic inspections are conducted every 125 hours of flight time. Additionally, airlines are expected to conduct their own routine inspections before every flight. Airbus uses drones in such routine plane inspections. The company captures data and images of its aircraft to help analyze the condition of the planes.10
l. Telecommunications and Internet Access. Telecommunication towers are inspected frequently to ensure service reliability by using drone. Facebook experimented with a solar-powered drone called Aquila, which planned to provide internet access to rural area.11
m. Live Entertainment, Cinematography, Advertisement and News Coverage. Drones have an impact on event surveillance and event photography or filming; they are also being used more directly for entertainment. Drones are becoming increasingly popular in professional sports outside the stadium and offers live sports broadcast services as well. Film industries have adopted drones in making professional film. Drones have allowed producers to capture dramatic aerial perspectives without the use of helicopters. In addition to filming, drones are being used as physical mediums for marketing or advertisements. The drone can be utilized to collect footage for news coverage, when it is difficult to collect data in person due to safety issues, high costs, and physical barriers.
Threats and Challenges of Drones/ UAVs
In addition to the benefits of drone uses, there are also risks and challenges. They are extremely vulnerable to any type of sophisticated air defense system. Being slow, they cannot escape from a manned fighter aircraft. In October 2012, Israel shot down a drone over the northern Negev desert, south of Hebron and near the country’s nuclear weapons site at Dimona. The drone entered Israeli airspace from the Mediterranean and was intercepted by F-16s from Ramon air base. According to the Israeli media, the first Python missile fired at the drone missed, but the second was successful.12 More so, drone can easily be destroyed by the enemy using anti-drone technology, such as, D-drones tracker, anti-drone laser, handheld gun, trained eagles, etc. Drones are most vulnerable when it falls in the hand of terrorist groups. They may achieve drone technology from unauthorized sources and can use the drone against security forces or even to the military forces, their bases, key point installations/places etc. There are also examples of many drones’ attack mistakenly made on wrong targets, causing a significant number of civilian casualties, damaging properties and affecting certain areas. Sometimes freak accidents affect other comrades, especially when technical malfunction occurs during bombardment. Drones are vulnerable to hackers and security vulnerabilities as any other Internet of Things (IoT) device. Hackers can easily hack themain control system of the drones, replacing the original users act as the new drivers or controllers of the device. Hackers once sneak the vital information without the knowledge of the original user starts to corrupt the file to prevent any traces of the intrusion.
Picture 5: Anti-drone Technology
1. Counter-Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology. 2. Anti-Drone Laser Dazzler Weapon (US Air Force). 3. Stinger Missile Uses to Destroy Drones.
4. Laser Weapon in Action (US Navy). 5. Drone Defender (Handheld Gun) 6. Sky Fence (Source: www.raytheon.com/ capabilities/products/counter-uas#collapseId19431, www.battelle.org, www.youtube.com/embed/h75hxN-hcMQ, www.bing.com/images/ search? view,)
There are chances of loss of control on the drone when someone hacking and taking control of the drone or from a system failure or frequency interference. This is likely for a hacker to use the drone for spiteful acts as well. More so, a major safety threat for the drone is possible collisions with airplanes. Many of the drones are made with hardened materials and the velocity at which they move, can take down a passenger plane. Aircrafts, those flies below 500 feet, like helicopters, agricultural planes and any aircraft that’s taking off or landing are most at-risk. Drones are vulnerable to wild animal attacks. When flying small size drones over an area that has a large concentration of wild animals, the drone is often considered a bird or creatures. Larger birds such as eagles may attack or capture drones while navigating at the atmosphere and taking important photos or videos. Drones at times clogging the airspace and it can also ‘go rogue,’ means, the remote control is no longer communicating with the drone. In 2009, the US Air Force had to shoot down one of its drones in Afghanistan when it went rogue with a payload of weapons.13
Threat to National Security
Experts also see drones as a threat to national security for every country, despite its numerous benefits and Bangladesh is no exception. By using drone/UAVs, an enemy may target to destroy key point installations (KPI) including military bases. Criminals may use drones to fulfill their criminal intention by targeting individuals and making vulnerable to privacy invasion. They may use it to conduct illegal activities like; smuggling goods, transportation of illegal arms, drugs, narcotics to vulnerable places (including prisons), persons and groups inside the country, and across the border. Cybercrimes may be conducted using drone technology. Terrorist groups may target important individuals, establishments and carry out espionage operations and subsequent terrorist attacks. More so, the risk of drone accidents and potential damages are always there. Unauthorized use of drones will increase frequency of accidents.
Over the years, number of drone related incidents/accidents took place in many countries. UAVs flew multiple times over France’s nuclear installations in 2014, but could not identify the originator. In 2015, a civilian UAV flew over the White House area and crush landed on the White House lawn. The same year, entire Dubai airport had to close for about 55 minutes as an entertainment UAV flew over the airport. In 2019, the Yemen′s Houthi rebel group launched combat drone attack on a Saudi Air Base and two oil Plants (ABKAIK and KHURAISH), caused severe damage. On 4th of January 2020, a US drone killed, Iranian elite force commander Major General Qassem Solaeimani, the most important General in the Arab World, which aggravated regional tensions and turbulence. Yemen’s Houthi rebel group carried out no of drone attacks in Saudi Arabia in 2020 and continuing it in 2021. Though, the Saudi-led military coalition force always claims that most of the drones were intercepted by them. Military experts say, the kingdom still remains more vulnerable to drones and low-flying cruise missiles than to high-flying ballistic missiles. More so, in the last decade, targeted killing with the use of drones has become a central component of the US counterterrorism policy. There are two types of drone strikes: “personality strikes,” which target specific individuals appearing in a “kill list,” and “signature strikes,” which target individuals based not on identity, but on an observed pattern of activity (or “signature”).14 However, Scientists, ethicists, and other professionals alarmed by the explosion in the use of robotic warfare, particularly lethal drones and they are demanding an international dialogue about the direction, ethics, and legality of high-tech warfare. According to the existing international law, the use of force is governed by the UN Charter. Article 2(4) of the Charter obligates “all members to refrain in their international relations from threatening or using force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.”15 But unfortunately military super powers are not following this law in case of drone attack.
Dealing with Drone Threats (Anti-Drone Technology)
To utilize full opportunities and advantages of Drone technology, one needs to deal with drone threats technically and tactically. At first, identify the threat and adopt multiple approaches; use radio frequency sensor, worldwide technology (WWT) cases to collect data by connecting fixed camera and identifying enemy drone with a D-Drone trucker, apply radar and jamming methods to disable enemy drone’s performance, use a shoulder mounted weapon to shoot down the enemy drone and use anti-drone laser to destroy enemy drones.16 Sky fence system is effective where a host of signals disrupted to jam the flight control signal of enemy drones. Specially trained Eagles may be engaged to capture and neutralized enemy drone. A net may be fixed at the outer perimeter of a particular object to prevent low flying drones entering nearer the object and ensure proper application of the laws on drone flying and limit non-military drone operation.
Rules and Regulations for Drone Uses in Bangladesh
The civil Aviation Authority of Bangladesh enacted Drones Regulations in 2019. Drone operators must ensure following rules before flying:17
a. Must apply for a permit and receive approval before drone flying, and must have insurance.
b. Must be at least 18 years old.
c. Must not drink alcohol within 8 hours before flying.
d. Must have a fire extinguisher on hand at all times.
e. Do not fly drone higher than 60 meters (200 feet).
f. Do not fly drone within 18.5 km (10 miles) of airports or in areas where aircrafts are operating.
g. Stay 300 meters (1000 feet) away from buildings, people, and vehicles.
h. Do not fly within 9 km (5 miles) of built-up areas.
j. Do not fly drone over people or large crowds.
k. Do not fly drone in a sensitive area including government or military facilities. Uses of drones or camera drones in this area are prohibited.
l. Must fly during daylight hours and only fly in good weather conditions.
m. Do not fly drone farther than the visual line of sight – FPV (First person view) equipment is not allowed unless specifically permitted.
n. Respect others’ privacy when flying drone.
Drone technology has dominance over anti-drone technology. To ensure internal security and military supremacy, drone and anti-drone technology both are equally important. Drone scientists need to put emphasis on improving anti-drone technology and embed sophisticated security system in modern drones, so that, the enemy drones are easily identified and own drones do not fall in the hand of unauthorized users.
Military Drones/UAVs are very expensive, comparatively anti-drone technologies are obviously cheaper. Hence, Bangladesh military being the defensive force should have required anti-drone technology and start integrating modern military drones/UAVs gradually. Nonmilitary patterns of drones are affordable and those should be used widely in different sectors to exploit opportunities.
There are many individuals/ groups involved in making small private drones in the country. Armed forces and law enforcing agencies should patronize them and take their support to develop/assemble different categories of drone if possible. This will reduce import dependency and minimize cost. More so, emerging drone scientists have less scope to fall into the traps of terrorist groups or militant organizations.
The civil Aviation authority and Law enforcing agencies should ensure proper implementation of ‘Drone aviation policy and enforcement of drone related laws to reduce unauthorized uses of drones and drone related accidents.
Drones/UAVs can play a game chaining role in the military operations and facilitate to all other fields. The perceived military success of drones in the theatre of armed conflict war in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan has created a massive worldwide demand for the technology. It also reduces losses of life, enables execution of high profile missions, maintains internal security, and significantly contributes to environmental, commercial and agricultural sectors. Though there are likely threats and obvious challenges, modern anti drone technology is capable of mitigating those threats and will ease up exploiting the opportunities of drone. Commercial and agricultural uses of the drone will help with the growing economy. Monitoring environment, climate change and conservation with drone, helps maintaining ecological balance.
Drones/ UAVs provide maximum benefits, but it may at times act as a double edged weapon. When the drone is in possession of military is a battle wining opportunity; but when it is in possession of terrorist groups, is a serious threat. Therefore, drone must be used in an efficient way, develop expertise in a professional manner both for military and commercial users. Enforcement of Drone usage law or CAAB regulations will reduce casual and illegal drone flying and minimize drone related accidents.
1 Drone (UAV): Margaret Rouse, Dennis Shiao, Alan Earls, Sharon Shea, Ivy Wigmore, Updated July 2019.
2 Wing Commander Dr. U.C. Jha(Retd), Drone Wars - Ethical, Legal and strategic Implications, 2014.
3 The Bangladesh Navy – An Available, Adaptive and Affordable Force,10 March 2020, https://eurosd.com/2020/03/allgemein/16528/the-bangladesh-navy-an-available-adaptive-and-affordable-force/
5 Michael J. Boyle, “The costs and consequences of drone warfare,” International Affairs, vol.89, no.1, 2013, pp. 1-29.
6 Ben Knight, A guide to military drones, June 30. 2017.
7 Marcel Dickow and Hilmar Linnenkamp, “Combat Drones—Killing Drones,” German Institute for International and Security Affairs, SWP Comments, February 4, 2013.
8 Barbara Ehrenreich Alexandria, Medea Benjamin, Drone Warfare-Killing by remote control, January 2012.
9 38 Ways Drones Will Impact Society: From Fighting War To Forecasting Weather, UAVs Change Everything, January 24, 2019. https://www.cbinsights.com/ research/drone-impact-society-uav/.
10 38 Ways Drones Will Impact Society: From Fighting War To Forecasting Weather, UAVs Change Everything, January 24, 2019. https://www.cbinsights.com/ research/drone-impact-society-uav/.
11 Advantages and Disadvantages of Drone Technology August 30, 2017. http://grinddrone.com/ drone-features/advantages-and-disadvantages-drone
12 “Israel Shoots down Hezbollah’s Iranian UAV.” Available at: http://www.ainonline .com/aviation-news/ain-defense-perspective/2012-10-12/israel-shoots-down-hezbollahs- iranian-uav, accessed march 19, 2013.
13 Drone Warfare-Killing by remote control,Op Cit p6.
14 Drone Wars - Ethical, Legal and strategic Implications, Op Cit p1,
15 Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson and Elizabeth Wilmshurst, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and
Procedure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 322.
16 How countries counter the drone threat, 21 December 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/technology- 46639099
17 Bangladesh Drone Laws (2019). https://uavsystemsinternational.com /pages/Bangladesh-drone-laws/
Brigadier General Syed Md Rafiqul Islam, SPP is Managing Director, Bangladesh Diesel Plant Ltd. He has written a book on tactics (Cache Operation) which has published as Army Training Pamphlet. More so, many of his articles have been published in the National Daily Newspaper.